DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORICAL BUILDINGS WITH UTILIZATION OF AIR STRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY-CASE STUDY: RASOOLIAN'S HOUSE

Volume 73, Apr 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.4.59
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Abstract: Through-out history developments always have been one of human's apprehension. In this research developing historical building in territory of city contexts is considered. In this way, it can be mentioned different kinds of obstacle such as philosophical approach of development, technological approach of development and not having structural resistance in historical building. Research method in this article is cross- sectional and for expanding the research the information based on scientific documents, library archives and authentic text. Research results represent that in developing historical context using technology from a philosophical and technical viewpoint is acceptable for many theorists in architecture, urbanism and renovation of historical monuments. Therefore in historical buildings which can afford all vertical and lateral forces, utilizing technology of air structures is a proper feature for vertical development of the buildings in which, the ratio of dead load is noticeably less than common structures, On the other hand, It is compatible with philosophical approaches of development in architecture and urbanism.

Author(s): Feizabadi Mahmoud, Arefeh Arian-Manesh, Maryam Toosi


DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED AND LOW LATENCY NOC USING MULTIGRAINED RECONFIGURATION AND PARALLEL MAPPING ARCHITECTURE ON FPGA

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.11
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Abstract: Here the last few decades, Network on Chip’s are the powerful chips for high speed\r\ncommunications pertaining to 802.11 Ethernet protocol which is , need to be reconfigurable for\r\nsuccessful data frame transmission. The existing architectures like coarse grained reconfigurable,\r\nALU cluster and expression grain reconfigurable architecture and look-up-table used in fine\r\ngrained reconfigurable devices require a lot of storage memory, hardware possessions such as\r\nslices, cell area and cell delay. To tackle these issues, Multi grained Reconfiguration and Parallel\r\nMapping Architecture is proposed and their performance analysis parameters are premeditated.\r\nThe MRPMA uses the four contributions to optimize Processing Elements operations: 1) Fast\r\nFourier Transformation to perform fixed point numbers to the configuration words, 2) Discrete\r\nCosine Transformation to analyze the data in the frequency domain, 3) Finite Impulse Response\r\nfor parallel mapping the data and 4) Channel encoder and decoder to encode the data and to\r\ncalculate the shortest route from source to destination switch.

Author(s): T. Siva Sankara Phani, M. Durga Prakash, K Hari Kishor, M.Sujatha


ANALYSIS OF HETEROJUNCTION TUNNELING ARCHITECTURES FOR ULTRA LOW POWER APPLICATIONS

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.9
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Abstract: Tremendous revolutionary changes lead the electronic industry from the past eight decades. Nowadays, portable electronic systems play a major role in the human life. These systems consist of adders, multiplexers, registers, memories etc. But memories are more power consuming components in embedded applications. In general, embedded systems are equipped with large battery sources in order to avoid frequent charging of batteries. The capacity of the battery depends on the power consumption of the system. Higher the power consumption can higher the battery capacity and hence the size which is unacceptable for portable embedded systems. So we need effective low power VLSI techniques for better performance of integrated systems. Many authors propose low power techniques for design and implementation of systems; the most effective energy saving method is low voltage operation. Heterojunction tunneling structures operated in the low subthreshold region of the transistor. This work presents the analysis of different types of heterojunction tunneling architectures for low power as well as ultra low power applications. A comparative analysis of heterojunction architectures can be done with reference to ION / IOFF ratio, leakage current, subthreshold swing (SS) and materials used for manufacturing and it needs a trade-off among these parameters. So, we proposed an architecture that addresses High ION / IOFF ratio, steeper subthreshold swing and improved Miller capacitance with less leakage current. These structures give a great compromise between power consumption and performance (speed and power trade-off) and hence improving the performance of heterojunction architectures.

Author(s): B V V SATYANARAYANA, M.Durga Prakash


SMALLHOLDERS FARMERS’ VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES TO PRODUCTION AND MARKETING FLUCTUATIONS IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.18
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Abstract: Smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa produce the bulk of the food consumed by inhabitants of these countries despite their poor working conditions in terms of access to inputs, improved technology and basic infrastructures. The changing pattern of climate, unstable micro- and macroeconomic conditions coupled with the rising poverty situation has even made the matter worse for most farmers. The resultant effect of this is manifested in poor living conditions and dwindling interest in agriculture. In Nigeria, agriculture remains the largest employer of labour providing livelihood for over 70% of the population. This paper relied on primary data collected through administration of structured questionnaire on a random sample of 360 smallholder farmers in southwest Nigeria using a multistage sampling procedure. The data were collected in March and September, being the peak of dry and raining seasons in the country. Respondents� distribution by age indicates that average age of these farmers is 45 years, and educational distribution of respondents show that about one-third are educated up to tertiary level while 36% have no formal education. Also, about two-third were estimated to be vulnerable going by the vulnerability benchmark constructed using the consumption expenditure data collected in March and September. A probit analysis employed to ascertain the determinants of vulnerability to seasonal fluctuations in production and marketing show that respondents� age, gender, years of formal education, household size, membership of cooperatives, access to inputs, access to extension services, distance to markets and price situation are major determinants of vulnerability in the study area.

Author(s): Isaac B Oluwatayo

FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF MOUNTAIN PASTURES OF DAGESTAN

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.15
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Abstract: The investigated pastures at various expositions of the slopes of the mountain Dagestan, located at 1000 and 1700 m above sea level. Significant differences in the floristic composition of communities in the southern, northern, south-western, north-western exposures of mountain slopes were revealed. The difference in species composition and climatic conditions led to the difference in the productivity of pastures. Relatively high air temperature on the southern exposure of the slope, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level, with sufficient precipitation contributed to the higher productivity of the phytocenosis in the north. At around 1000 m, the productivity of south-west slope was also higher than the north-west, in connection with the best supply of moisture due to the proximity of the site to the river.

Author(s): Shamil Salikhov, Gasan Gasanov, Shamil Salikhov, Nurjagan Ramazanova, Tatiana Asvarova, Kamil Hajiyev, Rashid Bashirov, Aishat Abdulaeva, Zaira Akhmedova, Kabirat Gimbatova, Zhamilat Shaikhalova, Viktoriya Semenova, Radjab Usmanov, Maxim Mallaliev, Aytemir Aytemirov, Magomed Musaev, Nurulislan Magomedov


THE APPROACHES TO EVALUATING PUBLIC SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATIONS: THE EXPERIENCE OF LEADING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITY OF USING IT IN RUSSIA

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.2
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Abstract: The article aims at revealing the features and approaches in the auditing of public research institutions in Germany and France as leading EU member states. To achieve that goal the authors provide a comparative analysis of the assessment systems of scientific organizations in the countries mentioned. The choice of focusing on Germany and France was made because French and German research institutions had held leading positions in the international ratings of scientific organizations. The study reveals the common features of the evaluation system of scientific organizations in France and Germany, including the predominance of qualitative expertise carried out by international experts over the quantitative ones, based on the measurable indicators, as well as their distinctive features. The analysis raised the question on the main differences between the research evaluation systems in France, Germany and Russia. According to results of the study, it is possible to conclude that research evaluation systems in European countries and Russia have distinct objectives. While in Europe research evaluation system serves as a diagnostic tool in order to give recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness of a scientific organization, in Russia it uses to determine the outsiders, i.e. the research institutions that are lagging behind in comparison with the others in their respective reference groups that had been identified through the science-metric indicators. In conclusion the authors give recommendations on the possibilities of using the strengths of the European research evaluation systems in Russia.

Author(s): Anna Maltseva, Igor Monakhov, Nadezda Bedenko


THE FORMATION OF KAZAKHSTAN'S MODEL OF PARLIAMENTARISM

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.6
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Abstract: In this article the authors have made an attempt to show the\\nhistory of development and periodization of Kazakhstan\\\'s model of\\nparliamentarism on the basis of objectivity and use of previous researchers�\\nworks. The article cites the opinion of various scholars engaged in this issue, as\\nwell as presents authors� arguments based on actual events occurring in modern\\nKazakhstan. The article justifies that the bicameral legislature is a legislative\\nparamilitary body that solves economic, social and political issues in the history\\nof the country. The specificity of the Majilis and the Senate formation is\\nformulated as reflecting the democratic legitimacy and the effective combination\\nof regional interests and needs. It is stated that the constitutional reforms being\\nimplemented in recent years have been promoting the political image and\\nreputation of the Parliament in the trio structure of the state. Theoretical\\njustification for the notion of parliamentary models and classification of\\nparliamentary models are given. On the basis of the material studied, the model of\\nparliamentarism in the Republic of Kazakhstan is characterized as developing,\\nauthors� view of the peculiarities of development of parliamentarism in the\\ncountry is given. It is asserted that Kazakhstan as a sovereign state incorporating\\nthe positive experience of foreign countries and not forgetting its traditions and\\nlegal culture creates new levers and self-organizing bodies.

Author(s): Otarbayeva Asel, Kozhakhmetov Galim


INVENTORY OF THE ALGERIAN SAHARA SOILS. SPATIAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT IN ORDER TO HELP MAKING DECISION

Volume 73, Sep 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.9.32
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Abstract: This work concerns the constitution of a soil database of the Sahara areas in which 628 standard profiles are compiled. \nThe 2428 described horizons and the 1990 analysis revealed that these studies are not always undertaken according to recognized steps and standards. Thus, it proves that pedological information is not always indicated. Indeed, only approximately 20 % of the descriptive or analytic variables are indicated with more than 70 %. This result means that there would be a loss of pedological information. The confidence tests between some pedological variables pairwise revealed that their agreement varies between 26 % and 97 % according to the pair considered. This result alone shows the absence of a rigorous control of the data at the time of the realization of the soil survey. \n The statistical analysis of five pedological parameters (clay, carbonate calcium, gypsum, organic matter and EC) in three categories of horizons (H1, H2 and Hp), on the Sahara (data base), showed that the saharian regions are not or far from clayey (more than 50 % of the horizons), slightly limestone in their majority (39 % of the horizons contain less than 10 % of limestone), not gypseous (more than 50 % of the studied horizons contain less than 3 % of gypsum) and not very organic (90 %). On the other hand, they are, for the majority, very strongly salted with a preference for the surface horizon in 50 % of the case. \nLastly, calculations showed that each one of these parameters are variable somehow strongly in the space and in the profile. \n The third aspect of this work concerns the search for possible relationship between the studied parameters. \nThe principal results are: \n- Generally, when the CaCO3 rate increases in the ground, the clay rates have tendency to decrease. However, one can meet grounds which are clayey but not very calcareous, or on the contrary very calcareous and not very clayey. \n- The grounds calcarious soils are generally not very gypseous. In the same way the gypseous soils are not very calcareous.\n- The relation between the gypsum and clay rates are negative and statistically highly significant.\n- The increase in the gypsum rate is accompanied by a reduction of the electrical conductivity.\n- The increase in the carbonate calcium rates beyond 30 % is accompanied by a reduction of the EC. \n\nKey words: The Sahara, database, clay, carbonate calcium, gypsum, OM, EC, correlations.

Author(s): Ismaiel Berkal, Didier Michot, Tahar Idder, Abdelhak Idder, Kaddour Djili


OPEN ACCESS AND “FEESMUSTFALL”: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS PROTEST IN SOUTH AFRICA

Volume 73, Oct 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.10.12
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Abstract: This paper seeks to explore from a critical discourse analysis point of view the 2015 and 2016 university students� protest, tagged �#FEESMUSTFALL� against the public universities proposed increase in fees by between six and ten per cent in South Africa. The paper proceeds from the assumption that the seeming difficult on the part of the South African government to meet its commitment to provide open access to university education through different financial initiatives might have provoked internal conversations leading to a subtle violence of the kind that equates social movements. Based on digital qualitative research approach, we adopted a critical discourse analysis which culminated in our conclusion that students� resistance to the attrition and contrivance of open access to university education probably occasioned by rising financial cost of university education could open up new visages of debates around the success or otherwise of democratically elected governments to equitably address the peoples� expectations. The kind of resistance observed in the �#FEESMUSTFALL� university students protest in South Africa can and does actually take the form of an ontological stratified measure of reality ending up as a process that puts the political process to test.

Author(s): Enos Makhele, A. B. Oduaran


THE ATTITUDE OF THE SPOUSE OF A MINISTER OF RELIGION AS ILLUSTRATED IN P. T. MTUZE'S INDLEL' ECAND' INTLANGO

Volume 73, Sep 2017
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2017.9.31
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Abstract: This essay explores Mtuze's illustration of the effect of the attitude of the spouse of a minister of religion on his/her work in the narrative Indlel' Ecand' Intlango (1985). It does that by analysing the attitude of Ntobeko's wife, Nontlanywa, towards members of the congregation and the public and how that impacts on he work of her husband. This paper wishes to prove whether Mtuze presents this attitude in a convincing manner in the narrative. The different part of this work are: introduction, the concept of attitude, analysis and conclusion. Under the concept of attitude will be the definition of the term within the context in which it is used in the discussion. Key concepts: P. T. Mtuze, Indlel' Ecand' Intlango, spouse, attitude, minister of religion.

Author(s): Zilibele Mtumane