EFFECT OF THE AGE OF CULTIVATION OF THE CEREAL FIELDS CONDUCTED UNDER PIVOTS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND DYNAMICS OF THE ADVENTITIOUS FLORA IN THE REGION OF OUARGLA (SOUTH-EAST ALGERIA)

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.14
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Abstract: The cereal culture under centre spindle is of recent creation, it was the object of an establishment in an ecosystem characterized by a natural and typical unprompted flora. The cereal fields, represent a middle to strong pressures which can, with the development of agrarian techniques, lead to answers adapted to the introduced flora that can evolve fast in an intrusive flora. However, unprompted kinds, who must have developed strategies to survive and reproduce in frustration especially of the use of pesticides, will be systematically destroyed on their middle with as consequence, a threat of disappearing of a flora perfectly adapted to Saharan conditions.\r\nFor it and in a purpose to update the inventory of the plants of the cereal fields and have a knowledge on their biology, ecology and sharing out for the region of Ouargla, as well as to put in an obvious place the impact of different agrarian practices on the unprompted flora, taking into account of its permanence, we performed a job which concerned the inventory of the complete flora of three experimental stations kept for their ages of bet in culture. Inventory, allowed to bring to light, a comparatively rich accidental flora in cash, characterized by the dominance of the introduced messicoles provided principally by Poaceae, characteristic family, par excellence, of the accidental flora of the cereal fields in our region of study.\r\nThe parameter age of bet in culture had a significant effect on composition, in cash introduced and unprompted, of the complete accidental flora of the experimental stations. They attend a phenomenon of impoverishment of the typical unprompted flora and an enrichment accentuated in the time of the messicole introduced flora which became more and more intrusive.\r\nKey words: Flora messicole, introduced flora, unprompted flora, diversity, dominance, cereal culture under centre spindle, Algeria.

Author(s): Sayed Ibtissem, Hamid Cheloufi, Omar Eddoud


POPULATION STRUCTURE OF ALGERIAN HORSE BREEDS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION

Volume 75, Dec 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.12.1
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Abstract: Abstract In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five Algerian horse breeds (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). These breeds of horses are distinct not only because of their adaptation to different agroclimatic conditions prevailing in the country, but also because they have unique performance traits. In this research a total of 200 animals were genotyped for 11 microsatellite markers. We registered the individuals chosen in the breed�s studbook and we avoided closely related animals. All five populations (Arab-Barb, Arabian, Barb, Thoroughbred, and French Trotter) had high heterozygosity values (0.75, 0.71, 0.72, 0.71, and 0.69 respectively). These values are among the highest heterozygosity values reported for other horse populations using the same microsatellite markers. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between the five horse breeds. Three different approaches: genetic distances, factorial correspondence analysis and discriminant analysis of principal components were considered to study genetic relationships among these horse populations. The native Algerian breeds were clearly differentiated from the others. Small genetic distances and high admixture level recorded between Barb and Arab-Barb breeds are probably due to a large gene flow among them. The data and information found in this study can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability. Key words: Algeria, genetic analyses, Microsatellite markers, horse breeds, conservation programs.

Author(s): Naima BERBER, Abdelkader Ammam, Soria Fares, Souheil Gaouar


THE GENDERASPECT OF LABOR IN THEREPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN: A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.13
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Abstract: This article is devoted to the urgent topic of gender inequality in labor relations in Russia. The study was conducted in the summer of 2019 on the territory of the Republic of Dagestan - one of the most multinational republics of Russia, where, compared with the European part of the country, a traditional family lifestyle has matured to a large extent. Based on the history of the emancipation of women in Dagestan and our studies, we conclude that there are contradictions in the Republic caused by the fact that the traditional social system, when the man was the only earner in the family, is a thing of the past, but the tendency to equal rights within the family and the distribution of household duties is also not observed, as a result of which the woman bears the burden of homework, and the obligation to earn money.

Author(s): DZUTSEV Khasan Vladimirovich, DIBIROVA Aminat Parukovna, KORNIENKO Natalya Vladimirovna


DETERMINING THE EXPOSURE LEVEL OF NURSE ACADEMICIANS TO RISK FACTORS FOR WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH PAIN AND FATIGUE

Volume 75, Dec 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.12.2
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Abstract: Objectives: This study was planned to determine the exposure level of nurse academicians to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD), and their relationship with pain and fatigue. Material and Methods: The population of this descriptive study consisted of two faculties and two colleges with the highest number of academicians (270 nurses) in two well-established universities in ?zmir. Instead of sample selection, entire population was included in the study. �Employee questionnaire�, �Quick exposure check�, �Visual analog scale� and �Fatigue severity scale� were used for data collection. The data were collected from the employees in their own institutions by survey and observation method. Results: The study 93.22 % of the nurse academicians participating in female and the mean age was 34.68 � 9.51. According to observer evaluation, 48.59% of the nurses were exposed to high risk in the lumbar region, 20.34% were exposed to high risk in the shoulder/arm region, and 57.63% were exposed to moderate risk in the hand/wrist region. According to the self-reports of academicians, academicians stated that 70.62% were exposed to moderate risk in terms of work tempo and 44.07% were exposed to high risk in terms of work stress. It was found that 82.62% of the academicians with moderate work tempo had moderate pain, and there was a statistically significant correlation between work tempo and pain (P < 0.05). It was determined that the level of fatigue increased as the risk level of the hand/wrist and neck region increased. Conclusion: Based on observer evaluations and self-reports of academicians, it was determined that nurse academicians were exposed to moderate-high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is recommended that nurse academicians should exercise regularly and the working environments should be arranged in accordance with ergonomic conditions in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.

Author(s): Ozum Erkin, Suheyla Ozsoy, Tugba Gultekin


PUBLIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP – PERSPECTIVES FROM THE FIELD, BOTSWANA

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.10
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Abstract: Background: Public health management and leadership are widely recognized as paramount to health system performance. This study explores the understanding of public sector managers� knowledge and understanding of healthcare management and leadership as a field of study relevant to strengthening health system. It is intended to provide policy makers and stakeholders with insights on current system performance gaps and help them develop context-fit management and leadership interventions.\r\n\r\nMethods: This study used an exploratory approach that involved in-depth interviews with public sector managers and leaders at central and district level. A total of sixteen managers and leaders were interviewed (5 central level, 11 district level). Data collected from the interviews was transcribed and analysed thematically. \r\n\r\nFindings and Discussion: Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts identified three main themes: limited understanding that healthcare management and leadership is a field of study and profession; limited competencies impacting the performance of managers and leaders and limited career progression; and the ability to manage complexity in the health system. \r\n\r\nConclusion: Public health managers and leaders� limited knowledge and understanding of healthcare management and leadership as a field of study and profession will likely hinder a systematic approach and capacity development for healthcare managers and leaders.

Author(s): DINTLE MOLOSIWA, Gina Teddy


STUDY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA RESPONSE TO INOCULATION BY RHIZOBIA INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS AND INTRODUCEDIN SEMI ARID AREA (WEST OF ALGERIA

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.12
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Abstract: The introduction of Medicago sativa in the semi-arid area of Ain-El-Hadjar (Saida), allowed us to study the response of inoculation of this legume with native rhizobia strains (M101, M306, M307) selected from the soils of the demonstration farm of ITELV compared to the introduced strains (ORN 06 ORN and 89).\\r\\nThe results obtained at the experimental fields namely on determining the number of nodules, the amount of dry matter of shoot and root parts which show significant variability between the effects of different strains that were analyzed statistically according to the test of the least significant difference (ANOVA P <0.05).\\r\\nSome strains introduced only as native have given quite significant results compared to controls and to the contribution of nitrogen fertilizer (urea). Increases in yields of biomass (stage 2 compound leaves) of about 20% compared with the control to indigenous strains and 17.5% for those introduced were recorded.\\r\\nAboriginal M307 strain distinguished compared to all other strains and compared to nitrogen fertilization with a biomass increase of 31% over the control and a value equal to that of nitrogen fertilization (stage 2 leaves place). But at flowering, forage yield exceeded that of nitrogen fertilization of 24% and 64% that of the control (with respectively 4.10 tons; 2.80 tons and 2.5 tons per hectare).

Author(s): Abdelkader Ammam, Soria Fares, Miloud Aouissat, Naima Berber, Abdel Kader Bekki, Meriem Kaid-Harche


A NODE REGULATED DEFLECTION ROUTING SCHEME FOR CONTENTION MINIMZATION

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.9
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Abstract: The design and gradual deployment of all-optical\r\nbackbone network architectures will lead to the provisioning of\r\nenough bandwidth demands of future Internet of Things (IoT)�s\r\napplications and services. Current and future global traffic is increasingly\r\nbecoming heterogeneous as well as displaying structural\r\nself-similarity. Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is a practically\r\ncost-effective switching paradigm that can possibly address the\r\nmismatches between DWDM Terabit per second technology transmission\r\nspeeds and the required ultra-switching capabilities to\r\nserve the global traffic. Structurally, an OBS-switched backbone\r\nnetwork comprises buffered edge as well as bufferless core (interior)\r\nnodes. Because of the bufferless nature of the interior nodes,\r\nthe core of such networks tends to be quite prone to frequent contention\r\noccurrences that can easily cause significant overall network\r\nperformance degradation due to sporadic heavy burst loses.\r\nSuch drawbacks can be partly countered by appropriately dimensioning\r\navailable network resources, and reactively by way of deflecting\r\nexcess as well as contending traffic to available alternate\r\npaths. In doing so, diverted traffic must not trigger network performance\r\ndegradation in the deflection paths. Because minimizing\r\ncontentions is key to provisioning a consistent quality of service\r\n(QoS), we thus in this paper propose and analyze a scheme that\r\nseeks to intelligently deflect traffic in the core network such that\r\nQoS degradations caused by contention occurrences are negligible.\r\nSince contention minimization will lead to improved overall\r\nnetwork performance, we herein propose a regulated deflection\r\nrouting scheme (rDr) that utilizes neural network agents to reinforce\r\nthe deflection routing decisions at core nodes. The scheme is\r\nevaluated by way of simulations and results show that it can minimize\r\nburst loses as well as keep end-to-end delays for the various\r\napplications to within acceptable bounds. It also significantly reduces\r\nthe frequency of contention occurrences as well as burst deflections.

Author(s): Bakhe Nleya, Andrew Mutsvangwa


FACEBOOK AS A MEDIUM FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: STUDENT VOICES

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.11
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Abstract: This paper reports on a study that examined the use of Facebook as a learning management system for an Information Systems course at a university. The purpose of the study was to explore a different platform to facilitate learning for students � referred to as digital natives � who are often resistant to traditional methods of learning and teaching. An online question-naire using Google docs provided quantitative data from a sample of 50 students in the form of scaled and open-ended questions. The study is underpinned by the Technology Ac-ceptance Model (TAM). Inferential statistics were used to identify significant correlations between constructs that influence the student�s behavioural intention to use Facebook for learning. Attitude was found to be the best predictor of intention to use facebook. Drawing from student perceptions of using the social network for learning, this paper shows that there are positive factors associated with the use of Facebook as a learning environment. The find-ings of the study are useful for the university by providing insight into learning via a social network for educational purposes. A web-based environment such as Facebook may be con-ducive to learning as opposed to formally structured LMS such as Moodle.

Author(s): Irene Govender, Manesh Purshotam


PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN AZERBAIJAN AND THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL FACTORS AZERBAIJAN STATE UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS – UNEC

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.6
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Abstract: Tourism in the modern world is an economic, social and environmental fact that interests all countries. With its natural and historical richness and climatic conditions, Azerbaijan has a very rich tourism potential. In today\'s fast-paced competition, improvement of the efficiency of existing capacity is a priority for the country. The rapid and diversified development of the nonoil sector, especially the tourism sector, plays an important role in the formation of a competitive and sustainable development economy in Azerbaijan. The multiplicative impact of the tourism sector on the country\'s economy, along with macroeconomic indicators such as employment, living standards, the achievement of a positive balance of payments, has a positive impact on the development of areas directly related to this sector: service, agriculture, transport and communications. At the same time, tourism development also offers ample opportunities to increase revenues from culture, sports, healthcare and other social sectors

Author(s): Jamila Hasanova Vagif, Kamala Najafova Akif


A LIMITED INTERMEDIATE NODE BUFFERING BASED RWA SCHEME IN OBS BACKBONE NETWORKS

Volume 75, Nov 2019
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2019.11.4
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Abstract: An all optical backbone Optical Burst Switched (OBS) network comprises of a multitude of optical transport sub-systems erected in commercial, residential as well as industrial areas. The heterogeneous nature of the large volumes of traffic generated by various applications and services ideally requires an optical backbone network infrastructure to accommodate it. Such a network must be continuously adaptable to the changing nature of the traffic as well as its spontaneous growth with time. In so doing, it has to ensure high end-to-end quality of service (QoS), availability as well as provision adaptable controllability in cooperation with peripheral (service) layer networks. To successfully design and deploy a cost-effective backbone network, consideration must be taken with regards to system configuration, as well as in applied devices manufacturing. This is to ensure that any component failure does not add any noticeable performance degradation as the network will quickly reconfigure itself accordingly. At operational level, effective routing approaches are necessary to ensure minimized congestion as well as contention occurrences. The aggregation of both transit and local traffic at a node influences each other such as to aggravate congestion and to a certain extent reduce contention occurrences (due to the streamline effect). In this paper, we propose a priority based intermediate Node Buffering based PIB-RWA scheme to combat the problem of contention occurrences and to prevent bursts discarding. It basically selects primary as well as deflection paths/links based on past contention frequency occurrences as well as current resources states in the candidate paths. Furthermore, the scheme also augments intermediate buffering provisioning for contending data bursts that are almost reaching the destination. Simulation results show that the scheme performs well in terms of key QoS metrics such as network throughput, data burst loss probabilities as well as load balancing

Author(s): Bakhe Nleya, Andrew Mutsvangwa