HOLY LIGHT, HOLY NUMBER, HOLY SPACE IN THE MİHR Ü MÂH (SUN AND MOON) OF JABRI IN THE CONTEXT OF SUFISM SYMBOLISM

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.5
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Abstract: The Mihr ü Mâh Mathnawi of the 16th Century Ottoman field, by poet, Jabri, is an allegorical and symbolic work written in accordance with Ptolemy's cosmogony. The work has nested layers of meaning; the first layer consists of a love story between Mihr ü Mâh. The other layer of meaning in work is based on a number of symbols that are open to mystical interpretation. In this study, the concepts of holy-light, holy-number and holy-space, directing the story construction, will be evaluated in the context of mysticism symbolism.

Author(s): Gülcin Tanrıbuyurdu

IMAGE OF WOMEN THROUGH SPEECH ACTS IN BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.11
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Abstract: In Buddhist scriptures about women, the Suj?ta Sutra and the ?r?m?l? Sutra are unique until now. Previous studies have mainly explored them in the religious and social perspectives. However, the speech acts in the text of the two sutras, which are written in the style of a spoken language, have been overlooked. The purpose of this research is to examine the image of women portrayed through speech acts. The sample of the research focuses on utterances of speech acts in the Suj?ta Sutra and the ?r?m?l? Sutra. A literature review and a descriptive approach are utilized to analyse the sample. The research scope is limited to the following two categories: utterances of speech acts; and contents of Five Good Deeds, Three Evils, Ten Evil Deeds in the Suj?ta Sutra, and Ten Great Vows in the ?r?m?l? Sutra. The findings indicate that illocutionary acts of directives and representatives are present in the dialogues in the Suj?ta Sutra, where Suj?ta as a wife and a woman is treated as inferior to her husband; and commissive acts are contained in the utterances in the ?r?m?l? Sutra, where Queen ?r?m?l? swears to Buddha to become Tathagata, thus achieving equal status with men. These speech acts ultimately connote that women had a passive, obedient social image in ancient times and that Buddhism pursues gender equality in a religious dimension. Thus, this research suggests that speech acts can be a useful tool in examining the image of women in the sutras.

Author(s): Yoon-Cheol Park

THE KARAIM MANUSCRIPTS IN ST. PETERSBURG

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.2
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Abstract: These scripts were written in Hebrew and mainly belong to the Karaims, who are a Turkic community with a population that currently is decreasing. The scripts, which are found in various libraries around the world and in private collections, are mostly composed of religious translations and mejumas which have been compiled from folk literature (e.g., stories, folk songs, proverbs, legends, and riddles etc. which have been passed down orally from story-tellers). During a visit to The National Library of Russia and The Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, analysis was conducted on some of the scripts that are located in the Eastern Manuscripts Section of this library. The purpose of this study is to share the information collected about the scripts during this visit with the science world in the hope that this will be useful for researchers who are interested in this subject.

Author(s): Tulay Culhao

CAN EXCHANGE RATES BE PREDICTABLE? EXCHANGE RATE PREDICTION MODEL WITH ANN FOR TURKEY

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.9
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Abstract: The forecasting concept can be expressed as predicting a variable’s future values using various methods under certain assumptions. In the estimations made using the time series, the value of a variable in the current period and the past period values are used. In the time series analysis, past time values of the variable to be estimated constitute the model’s independent variables. Learning from data, generalizing, working with very large samples, etc. are essential Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) methodology features. ANN methodology, which provides significant advantages thanks to these features, has vast usage possibilities in prediction modeling as in other fields. ANN has become one of the time series estimations’ methods since the late 1980s. This study handles an artificial neural network learning paradigm to estimate the exchange rate for economic targets. This paradigm has not prior conditions such as normal distribution or stationary. Therefore it has been frequently preferred in time-series analyses. The present study predicts the Turkish Lira’s value against the U.S. Dollar by using an ANN methodology. Our study is built upon purchasing power parity and the different researches dealing with exchange rate predictions. Our primary purpose is to minimize the error between the expected output of the network and the output it produces. This study uses an Artificial Neural Network model that builds upon the MLP to estimate the exchange rates. We first define the MLP with one hidden layer for this model, using monthly data from 2000 to 2019. In contrast, the independent variables are interest rates, Gross Domestic Product, and Consumer Price Index data for Turkey and the United States of America. We prefer batch training to train the ANN in SPSS Neural Networks 17.0 software. Sixty percent of the data were used in training, 25 percent in the testing, and 10 percent in the holdout, of the artificial neural networks, respectively. According to research results, the performance of ANN is relatively higher. While the relative error in the training set is 1 percent, the test set’s relative error is below 1 percent (0,007).

Author(s): Fuat Sekmen, Haşmet Gokırmak, Murat Kürkcü, Şükrü Apaydın, Hasan Memiş


PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK IN NIGERIA: RETHINKING THE CONCEPT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

Volume 77, Feb 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.2.11
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Abstract: Nigeria has made remarkable advancement within the last 10 years by setting the rudiments of a contemporary public expenditure management system. However, lack of coordination in its budget management before 2000 culminated in wide government deficits, higher external debt that resulted in declining manufacturing capacity utilization. The existing expenditure framework in Nigeria is encumbered with absurdities that derail it from positive outcomes. Furthermore, the negative externality effects, affect other macro aggregates. This article reviews conceptual issues in public expenditure, principles and approaches of national budgeting, policy and institutional frameworks for national expenditure management. Using a desktop approach, the article x-rays issues surrounding the uses and abuses of national expenditures and financial management system amongst other dynamics in Nigeria. Based on the synopsis, we recommend a rethinking of the conceptual frameworks of public expenditure management in Nigeria. This will improve the current budget system outcomes in the country.

Author(s): Kanayo Ogujiuba

MODEL OF VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ADOPTION AMONG THE MALAY LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN MALAYSIAN NATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Volume 77, Feb 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.2.4
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Abstract: There are too few studies that examine the adoption of the Virtual Learning Environment among secondary school teachers specifically among the Malay language teachers. Therefore, the study attempts to elaborate the issue of using the Virtual Learning Environment by applying the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the concept of teacher's faith in teaching and Elys’ Condition of Change Model. This study is a survey research using a questionnaire as the instrument of study. A total of 400 Malay Language teachers at national secondary schools in Selangor were randomly selected as respondents. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) has been used to identify the validity, reliability and analysis of structural data. The findings show that the Virtual Learning Environment is influenced by variables such as administrative support, perceived ease-of-use, technological skill, facility condition, teachers' belief towards teaching, attitude and adoption intention. A coefficient of determination (R2) of 81.6% in this study indicating that this model is a strong model to explain the variables include administrative support, facility condition, perceived usefulness, technological skill, teacher's beliefs towards teaching, attitude and behavioural perceived usefulness to adopt, will influence the adoption of the Virtual Learning Environment. In conclusion, the adoption model of the Virtual Learning Environment among Malay Language teachers is expected to contribute to the successful use of the Virtual Learning Environment in teaching the Malay language.

Author(s): Fong Peng Chew, Zanariah Hamid, Mohd Shahril Nizam Shaharom, Fonny Hutagalung


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACE GENE POLYMORPHISM AND CEREBRAL ISCHEMIC STROKE

Volume 77, Feb 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.2.9
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Abstract: Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, atherosklerosis and hypertention. ACE Gene insertion/Deletion (I/D) Polymorphism has commonly been studied to illuminate the cerebral ischemic stroke as it has been in several other illnesses in recent years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ACE gene I/D Polymorphism and cerebral ischemic stroke. Materials and methods: 54 patients with clinically and radiologically accepted to be cerebrovascular infarct but have no cerebrovascular disease in their background and 25 healthy people as control group accepted in Neurology Major Discipline of the Faculty of Medicine of Dicle University were included in our study. Full blood and biochemical values, stroke risk factors and ACE gene I/D polymorphisms were compared. Results: ACE D/D Ploymorphism was statistically found meaningfull in the patient group. Although lacunar infarcts frequency was elevated in ACE D/D Positivity, it was not concidered statistically meaningful. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in ACE D/D Patients was found statistically meaningfull, yet no significant correlation with ischemic heart story has been identified. Furthermore negative correlation was identified between carotid artery stenosis and the ACE D/D Gene polymorphism.

Author(s): Suleyman Guler, Sukran Guler Sanlıurfa training and research hospital radiology department,Mehmet ufuk aluçlu Dicle university neurology department


AL-GHAZALI'S THOUGHTS ON AMAR MAKRUF NAHI MUNKAR (AMNM) AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT IN IHYA’ ‘ULUM AL-DIN

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.6
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Abstract: This article discusses al-Ghazali's thoughts on the method of amar makruf nahi munkar (AMNM) against the government. The purpose of this discussion is to understand the method employed by al-Ghazali to call rulers to goodness and prevent them from evil. This is because, a good government will enhance peacefulness and prosperity of the country as well as the community. To achieve this goal, the method of content analysis is conducted on the text of his essay which is Kitab al-Amr bi al-Ma’ruf wa al-Nahy ‘an al-Munkar which is also one of the topics in Kitab Ihya’ ‘Ulum al-Din. He proposed four approaches, namely al-ta’rif, al-wa’z, al-takhshin fi al-qawl and al-man’ bi al-qahr. The four methods are not directly stated by him. Thus, this paper describes the four methods and found that al-Ghazali viewed AMNM against the government is possible with all the methods mentioned except al-man’ bi al-qahr.

Author(s): Wan Hishamudin Wan Jusoh, Zawawi Ismail, Mohd Nizam Shad, Mohd Hasrul Shuhari, Mohd Sani Ismail, Norizan Abdul Ghani, Muhammad Rashidi Wahab, Aman Daima Md Zain


CINEMATIC AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS STUDY OF HYDRAULIC JUMP B TYPE IN SLOPPING RECTANGULAR CHANNEL WITH NEGATIVE STEP

Volume 77, Feb 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.2.5
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Abstract: The hydraulic jump, B type with negative step in sloping rectangular channel is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A function relationship is defined linking the various parameters which influence the phenomenon. The cinematic and physical characteristics of the jump as its velocities, sequent depths, length, water surfaces and efficiency are analysed. At the negative step start, an undisturbed jet is fully developed caused near the fall of the negative step at very high speeds, which can exceed 150cm/s. In the vortex area, negative speeds are obtained for different cases of slopes studied. The results also show an exponential increase in sequent depth with the increase in the Froude number (F1). The roller relative length (Lr / h1) increases proportionally in a linear fashion with the channel slop increase (θ) and the step height (S). The yield obtained from the jump studied for the entire study range justifies the effectiveness of the forced hydraulic jump B type with negative step in energy dissipation.

Author(s): Marouf Nadir, Bemamar Saadia Benmamar, Remini Boualem


INVESTIGATING THE BARRIERS TO ADOPTION OF E-BANKING WITH FOCUS ON INTERNET BANKING AT AFRICAN BANK IN SOUTH AFRICA

Volume 77, Mar 2021
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2021.3.8
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Abstract: Due to increasing advancement in technology and easy access to information, the banking sector is increasingly moving towards digitalization. The advancement in technology has resulted in fast-approaching entry of new digital solutions to streamline processes and systems. African Bank has continued to pursue large scale transformation programmes aimed at improving customer experience, digital transformation, and new ways of working. However, the digital edge has brought several challenges; with African Bank not immune to these challenges brought about with digitalization, this study explored the causes of barriers to adoption of internet banking by African Bank clients. Qualitative research methodology was adopted for this research study. The research study revealed that a lot still needs to be done if the bank is to realise the benefit of technology adoption and to cater for their clients’ daily needs in order to meet the growing demands around client service and client obsession in the banking industry. Respondents suggested several strategies to improve the adoption of Internet banking at African Bank. A proper implementation process was identified as the main and major factor to increase the adoption rate. the study makes a meaningful contribution in revealing the underlying causes of non-adoption of Internet banking by African Bank and also recommends measures which may ensure that the adoption rate increases, change cannot happen overnight and it is for this reason that the expected target.

Author(s): Ntombikayise Gaba, Jeremiah Madzimure