PERCEPTION AND PROSPECTS OF EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT ADMINISTRATORS USING COMPUTER ADAPTIVE TESTING: CASE STUDIES FROM WEST AND SOUTH AFRICA

Volume 78, Aug 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.8.3
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Abstract: The Covid-19 Pandemic affected world economies unimaginably, not leaving out the educational sector. Standardised educational assessments commonly deployed as paper-pencil in less developed countries faced challenges that call for technological adoption. The study was qualitative research of case study type. The study population was top-level officials in national examination bodies in Nigeria who served as key informants sampled using purposive and snowball techniques. In-depth interviews were conducted for data collection supported by documentary analysis to examine the perception and prospects of adopting Computer Adaptive Testing for Standardized Educational Assessment with case Studies from West and South Africa. Findings revealed that key informants positively perceived computer adaptive testing and were seen as consistent with current practices, experiences, and needs. The prospect of adopting the technology by examination bodies in West Africa was relatively high. However, there are myriad challenges to overcome to bring this to reality. Considering these findings, some recommendations were given. Keywords: Perception, Prospects, CAT, Standardised testing, Educational assessment, Covid-19, Less developed countries. The Covid-19 Pandemic affected world economies unimaginably, not leaving out the educational sector. Standardised educational assessments commonly deployed as paper-pencil in less developed countries faced challenges that call for technological adoption. The study was qualitative research of case study type. The study population was top-level officials in national examination bodies in Nigeria who served as key informants sampled using purposive and snowball techniques. In-depth interviews were conducted for data collection supported by documentary analysis to examine the perception and prospects of adopting Computer Adaptive Testing for Standardized Educational Assessment with case Studies from West and South Africa. Findings revealed that key informants positively perceived computer adaptive testing and were seen as consistent with current practices, experiences, and needs. The prospect of adopting the technology by examination bodies in West Africa was relatively high. However, there are myriad challenges to overcome to bring this to reality. Considering these findings, some recommendations were given.

Author(s): Jumoke I. Oladele, Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu, Esther O. Bamidele, Henry O. Owolabi


GREEN PRODUCTS AWARENESS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PURCHASE OF GREEN PRODUCTS IN WINDHOEK, KHOMAS REGION OF NAMIBIA.

Volume 78, Jul 2022
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Abstract: GREEN PRODUCTS AWARENESS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PURCHASE OF GREEN PRODUCTS IN WINDHOEK, KHOMAS REGION OF NAMIBIA. \nAuthor.\n1. Dr. Benedict Sewe Odhiambo, New Era College of Arts, Science and Technology (NEC), Gaborone, Botswana.\n\nAbstract\nThe purpose of this research was to study green products awareness and its influence on the purchase of green products in Windhoek, Khomas Region of Namibia. The main objective of the study was to find out the level of awareness towards green products purchase. The study adopted mixed methods, primary data was collected using a standardized interview guide and structured questionnaire. A sample of 120 respondents was considered in the current research. \nIn-depth interviews conducted to assess the level of awareness of green products purchase in Khomas region. Quantitative primary data collected through structured questionnaire coded, cleaned and entered into SPSS version 23 for analysis. Descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test for associations of continuous and categorical variables performed. The predictors for purchase of green products were determined using bivariate and logistic regression analysis. The qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis.\n Statistically significant association between the purchases of green products with the three main sources from which respondents knew about green products prevailed. The research finds statistically significant association between the purchases of green products with the role of social media in creating green product awareness. It also emerged that a statistically significant association between the purchase of green products and the independent variables determining green product information confirmed. The research also finds a negative association between purchase of green products and the knowledge about environmental benefits of green products. The results also showed that the main sources of green product information were the television, radio and social media. \nKey words: Green products; Green products awareness; Purchasing.

Author(s): Benedict Sewe Odhiambo

AFTER CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC: MATHEMATICS STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE TEACHING IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS

Volume 78, Jul 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.7.5
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Abstract: The world before and after Covid 19 has drastically changed, and the impact of Covid 19, especially on education, noticeable at all levels. Since the emergence of the pandemic, researchers in different areas investigated the effect of the pandemic on teaching and learning from different aspects. However, the researches whom discussed the effectiveness of online learning on teaching and learning mathematics are countless. Thus, this research explored the effectiveness of online teaching on learning mathematics from students’ perspectives. It also identified the advantages and disadvantages of mathematics online learning. one hundred-seventy-one students (71 males) and (100 females) mathematics students of Al-Jouf University-Qurayyat were surveyed via written questionnaire prepared by the researcher after university open up. For data analysis, SPSS was employed to explore the effectiveness of online teaching in learning mathematics. The research found that the majority of the students reported positive attitudes and high level of acceptance for online learning of (M=4.14, SD=0.478). Furthermore, there were no statically significant differences between males and females in the attitudes and high levels of acceptance for online learning of mathematics. Also, students with high GPA (more than 4/5) were more aware of the advantages of online learning compared to students (less than 4). Finally, when it comes to the level of study, there is no significant differences in the effectiveness of online learning on teaching and learning mathematics.

Author(s): Fatimah Alenazi

THE USE OF GIS FOR MANAGED AQUIFER RECHARGE (MAR) SITE SELECTION IN WADI ARABA - JORDAN

Volume 78, Jul 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.7.8
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Abstract: Jordan is considered as one of the ten most waterscarce countries in the world, but the country facing challenges in its water sector, Groundwater is the most important source of water in Jordan, it provides more than half of the total water demand, Some of Jordan groundwater resources are presently exploited at maximum capacity and in some cases more than safe yield. To meet this challenge, we should search for practical solutions that increase groundwater recharge, naturally or artificially. This study aims to select suitable sites for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) through GIS techniques, the selected criteria choosing based on Rainfall, Slope, Geological formations, Land Use, Soil texture and Depth to water table, and assigned weightages and ranks, these layers have been integrated into GIS software for generating MAR suitability map of Wadi Araba. The area falls into five categories of (MAR) potential zones i.e., very good, good, moderate, low, and very low depending on the likelihood of (MAR) suitable locations. Based on this study, it is found that 16.7% with an area of 1473.7 km2 and 30.15% with 2649.5 km2 area are under the very good and good category of (MAR) suitability respectively. An area of 1779.3 km2 represents 20.24% is found under the moderate category whereas 1944.24 km2 and 890.94 km2 equals 32.82% of Wadi Araba area falls under the low and very low category of (MAR) suitability respectively.

Author(s): Ala' Hamed Alelaimat, Ismail Yusoff, Tham Fatt Ng, Yahya A Majali, Mohd Khairul Nizar Shamsuddin


A MULTI-PERSPECTIVE REFLECTION OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE STUDENTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: A CASE STUDY OF TWO URBAN AND TWO RURAL SCHOOLS IN GHANA

Volume 78, Jul 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.7.6
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Abstract: The environment humans live in is unstable and variable, making management extremely difficult. This has developed into one of the world\'s most pressing challenges. The environmental crisis is deteriorating. This crisis spans activities such as stone quarrying, water, air, and noise pollution, sand mining, and sanitation issues. This is primarily due to a lack of awareness, unfavourable attitudes and actions about land degradation and a lack of practical implementation of environmental expertise. Considering these, it is necessary to conduct a study to ascertain environmental literacy and elicit the diverse perceptions of senior high school students on environmental issues and literacy. The study employed a mixed-method research strategy. The primary data collection tools were questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a framework for thematic content analysis. The finding demonstrates that Ghana\'s environmental challenges require significant attention. As a result, the study advocates for a more effective environmental education for all high school students to foster collaboration between humans and their environment, increasing their environmental literacy and advancing sustainability.\n\nKeywords: Environmental issues, high school students, Integrated Sciences, perception

Author(s): Sakyiwaa Boateng

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN LANGUAGES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY AT THE VAAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Volume 78, Jul 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.7.1
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Abstract: African languages in teaching and learning activities were introduced to provide space for multilingualism and enhance teaching and learning in higher education. More specifically, the greater inclusion of African languages in the curriculum and university as a whole is expected to help promote access, retention, and success of students as well as preserve and develop the historically marginalized African languages. In order to assess the progress of Africa languages development within a South African University, this research set out by means of a questionnaire to explore the explore the issues, experiences, and challenges at a South African University of Technology in relation to the concepts of Translanguaging and multilingualism. Both these concepts refer to how various languages are deployed in order to enhance communication between different native speakers. Given South Africa has 11 official languages, and home to many more non-official ones, it is important to understand the dynamics of how languages can be developed to better our diverse societies. Data was collected electronically from approximately 2900 students by means of a data collecting platform connected to students online learning platform. The data was analyzed and the main result is that Translanguaging and multilingualism can help to improve teaching and learning at the Higher Education level.

Author(s): Anton Michael Pillay, Jacob Thamaga, Thabang Molatou, Tebogo Mathebula


LEADERSHIP STYLES USED BY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS OF RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF MTHATHA TO IMPROVE LEARNERS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Volume 78, Aug 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.8.2
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Abstract: This paper sought to investigate the leadership styles used by school principals to improve learners’ academic performance in rural secondary schools in Mthatha, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The study was grounded on a participative leadership theoretical framework which contends that staff is kept informed about everything that affects their work and share decision making and problem-solving responsibilities. Qualitative research approach using a case study research design was used. Eight rural secondary schools in Mthatha were conveniently selected with a purposive sampling used to select the participants. The sample size included eight rural school principals in Mthatha. Data was collected through semistructured interviews. Manual analysis of qualitative data was used. These are some of the findings: There is a relationship between the leadership styles applied by principals and learners’ academic performance. Principals use a variety of leadership styles to enhance leaners’ academic performance. Principals involve other stakeholders in decision making processes to enhance learners’ academic performance. Principals of low performing schools attribute their let down to laxity from teachers and learners, lack of resources, socio-economic factors, inadequate support from the department, problem of discipline, theft, late coming and poor human relations. The recommendations are: Principals should lead their schools on the basis of moral leadership to ensure effectiveness and academic enhancement; The school principals should be made aware and be empowered through workshops by the Education Department, on the benefits of employing democratic and participatory styles of leadership in their schools; In order to enhance learners’ academic performance, effective monitoring and support of school principals by the department is essential; Rural school principals should start to form professional working groups among themselves in order to assist and build one another; School principals should always work on recruiting dedicated, qualified and skilled teachers into their schools; Education Department should employ security personnel and place them at every rural secondary school to safeguard the little resources and to try and curb the scourge of theft and vandalism happening in rural schools.

Author(s): Owen Madalambana, Mabandla Nonyashe, Dudu Christabel Mantlana


ON THE DETERMINATION OF LITERARY PLAGIARISM IN COPYRIGHT LAW

Volume 78, Jun 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.6.4
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Abstract: Literary plagiarism is mainly presented as advanced plagiarism in the form of article laundering in contemporary times. Advanced plagiarism includes language-transformation (adapted) and content-collage (deconstructive) plagiarism. Copyright law mainly follows the principle of “access + substantial similarity - free-use defence” in determining literary plagiarism. However, there are still some defects in the judicial practices, which mainly show in the misunderstanding of the nature of literary plagiarism and the rigid understanding and application of basic theories of copyright law. The linguistic form of literature is not only the arrangement of words and sentences but also the structure of works. The idea of works in the popular sense is not consistent with the ideological connotation of the idea/expression dichotomy. The nature of work is the expression, but to protect the interests of the public domain, some expressions are not protected. There is no high or low level of originality; the so-called high or low originality refers to the work to bring readers the strength of aesthetic experience. It is suggested that copyright law follow four review principles to determine literary plagiarism.

Author(s): Ziyu Zuo

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COMMONLY CONSUMED FRUITS GROWN IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA AND ITS RELATION WITH PHENOLICS, FLAVONOIDS AND ANTHOCYANINS CONTENT

Volume 78, May 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.5.4
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Abstract: Polyphenols as antioxidants in fruits have received a lot of attention for their positive influence on human health. This study has examined the total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TFC) and anthocyanins content (TAC), as well as the radical scavenging activity (RSA) of selected fruits grown in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results showed that TPC (mg GAE/g) in fruits was in the range from 3.08 to 11.6, while TFC (mg QE/g) was from 0.84 to 3.98. The TAC varied between 0.69 for cranberry and 8.64 CGE/g of fruit for cornelian cherry. DPPH scavenging activity was the highest for physalis (peruvian strawberry) with value of 76.75 % while the lowest was for the sour cherry with value of 28.46 %. These tested fruits, found at markets across the country, can be grown and consumed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In that manner, this research has shown that selected fruits could be considered as powerful supply of needed antioxidants.

Author(s): Hurija Dzudzevic-Cancar, Amra Alispahic, Alema Dedic, Samija Muratovic, Atifa Ajanovic, Kemal Duric, Ismet Fatih Cancar


SCHOOL PRINCIPALS’ PERSPECTIVES OF STRENGTHENING TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS IN QUEENSTOWN, SOUTH AFRICA

Volume 78, Jul 2022
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2022.7.9
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Abstract: This paper explored the school principals’ perspectives of strengthening transformational leadership in schools in Queenstown, South Africa. Transformational leadership theory was used to ground the paper. A qualitative approach and case study research design were used. Eight secondary schools were conveniently selected and from each school, a principal was purposefully sampled. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The data collected were analysed using content analysis and were presented in themes. The following are the main findings: The point of departure is that the principal and the stakeholders need to execute change in tandem with committed members thorough openness and transparency about changes to be effected. To bring change for the better in the practices of the organisation under the guidance of the principal needs consideration of organisational structures, academic programme, teaching methods and relationships among others. The principal with all the relevant stakeholders needs to adhere to distribution of leadership and enhancement of collaborative culture. This is achieved by creating the vision; support strategy and catalysing the development of every individual’s strength to move the organisation forward. Paying particular attention on developing leaders to devote their full potential on the four areas of development, namely idealised influence, individual consideration inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation strengthens leadership transformation. These are the recommendations: Due consideration of organisational structures, academic programme, teaching methods and relationships among others are the fundamentals of school transformation. Openness to subordinates, cascading everything down to everyone, frankness and openness to all stakeholders including the community. Leaders to encourage innovation and creativity through challenging the status quo or the current views of the group about the organization. Creation of schools for the foreseeable future and use of the space as organisers for educating the young by making it more adaptable to the 21st century by adopting spaces, small learning groups, new technologies and conducive environments to both contemplation and interaction.

Author(s): Owen Madalambana, Mabandla Nonyashe, Dudu Christabel Mantlana