INTERFERENCE BY FDG RADIONUCLIDE MOLECULES USED FOR PET-CT MONITORING ON 25-HYDROXY VITAMIN D MEASURED BY LC-MS/MS

Volume 74, Jun 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.6.8
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Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent condition in humans as a result of the inclination to live in indoor settings. Recent advances in laboratory medicine have resulted in replacement of immunoassay methods by LC-MS/MS measurement techniques, which represent the current reference method. However, serum matrix effect resulting in an interference effect may lead to erroneous results in LC-MS/MS. In this study, our aim was to examine the interference of radionuclide molecules used for PET-CT imaging on vitamin D measurements.\\r\\nFor this purpose, 40 ?L of 18F-FDG was added into the control solution consisting of 100 micro-liter (?L) of vitamin D and 25(OH)D measurements were performed at 0 and 60 minutes using LC-MS/MS. Based on the measurements, radioactivity caused by positrons emitted from FDG was found to cause interference on 25(OH)D measurements depending on the elimination half-life. It has been concluded that the interference observed was caused by the radioactivity emitted from radionuclide molecules used in PET-CT imaging rather than the molecular mass of 25(OH)D.\\r\\nIn daily practice, elevated 25(OH)D levels bears clinical significance, particularly with respect to detection of the etiology of hypercalcemia in cancer patients. On the other hand, in patients undergoing PET-CT imaging, interference caused by FDG may lead to overestimation of vitamin D levels, even when measurements with the reference method LC-MS/MS are used; this may direct the clinician away from a diagnosis of bone metastasis. Therefore, detection of hypervitaminosis D after PET-CT imaging should raise a suspicion of interference.

Author(s): Ataman Gonel, Ismail Koyuncu


Perception, Attitudes and Knowledge among Medical, Dental, Pharmacy and Nursing Students towards the Use of Herbal Medicine in Iraq

Volume 74, Jun 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.6.2
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Abstract: Background: As herbal medicine are increasingly being used and continue to rise as a result of the widespread belief that preparations are natural, and therefore safe, low cost, and many physicians believe in the usefulness of herbal medicine. It may therefore be appropriate if students of medical campus increase their perception and attitude toward the use of herbal medicine in Iraq. Method: A questionnaire form which consists of open and closed ended questions was designed to assess student's perception and attitude toward the usage of herbal medicine; 248 students from second and fourth stages were selected randomly from pharmacy, dental, nursing and medical colleges in Kerbela University. Results: A total response rate of 90% was observed. 84% of students believe that herbal medicines have effect; 53% of them have been used herbal medicine before. Highest frequency of the use was recorded for Borago (ward mawi) ,green tea and chamomile ; 38% of them experience side effect. 77% of participants believe that patients must tell their doctor about herbal medicine before use it. The highest main reasons that prevent some participant to use herbal medicine that they do not know much about it 26% and 25% of them not need it. Internet 51% was cited the most common source of information of herbal medicine. The most common barrier that prevents students to inform about it was "insufficient scientific evidence 27%". 70% of students agree to study herbal medicine in their colleges. Many opinions are agreed that herbal medicine need more development in Iraq. Conclusion: Because herbal medicine is rapidly growing field there is a need for more development and to increase knowledge about it. Students believe in the beneficial effect of herbal agents, so they need to be aware of the medicinal effect and method of use of the most common herbs used in their country.

Author(s): Ahmed Salih Sahib, Noran Adil Redha, Rafal Rafed Rasheed, Fatima Salam Hussain


NATURAL SCIENCES INSTRUCTION: INTERROGATING EASTERN CAPE TEACHERS’ INSTRUCTIONAL METHODOLOGIES

Volume 74, Jun 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.6.9
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Abstract: The paper assesses the pedagogical methods used by teachers in the teaching and learning of Natural Science (NS). The study was informed by the social constructivism, located in the interpretivist paradigm. A qualitative approach and a case study design were utilised. A purposive sample of three principals, three teachers and eighteen learners participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews, focus group discussion and lesson observation. Data were analysed for content. The study found that teachers were not using the current pedagogies that promote the learning of NS. The paper concludes that the effective learning of NS is severely compromised if teachers have challenges in pedagogical methods. School staff exchange programmes should be encouraged.

Author(s): Newlin Marongwe, Nomxolisi Mtsi, Grasia Chisango, Elvis T. Matyedi


CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF ODONTOGENIC CYSTS ACCORDING TO WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION NEW CLASSIFICATION OF ODONTOGENIC CYSTS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

Volume 74, Jun 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.6.5
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Abstract: Background: Having knowledge about the frequency and distribution of cysts helps to know the possible diagnosis and complications of cysts and to plan appropriate treatment. There are many studies on the prevalence of odontogenic cysts in literature. However, these studies are based on the WHO classifications of 1992 and 2005, and there is no study using the latest classification updated in 2017. In this study, the latest classification scheme of WHO in 2017 is used. Methodology: Data were collected from the medical records of the 462 odontogenic cyst patients regarding age, gender, follow-up duration, systemic conditions, localization of the cysts, examination findings before the operation, treatment methods applied, provisional diagnosis and pathology report. Cystic lesions were classified according to the new WHO classification in 2017. Results: Pathology reports showed 246 patients had (53.2%) radicular cyst, 3 patients (0.6%) had inflammatory collateral cyst, 78 patients (16.8%) had dentigerous cyst, 51 patients (11.1%) had odontogenic keratocyst, 12 patients (2%) had lateral peridontal cyst, 15 patients (3.2%) had gingival cyst, 18 patients (3.8%) had glandular odontogenic cyst, 9 patients (1.9%) had calcifying odontogenic cyst , 6 patients (1.2%) had orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst and 24 patients (5.2%) had nasopalatine duct cyst. Conclusion: Radicular cyst,dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst are the most prevalent odontogenic cyst in this study. The future studies might include more participants to evaluate for odontogenic cysts prevalence, odontogenic and non-odontogenic tumours, malign tumours, and precancerous lesions in oral cavity using the WHO classification scheme updated in 2017.

Author(s): Onur Şahin, Onur Odabaşı


NEUTROPHIL-LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AND PLATELET-LYMPHOCYTE RATIO AS MORTALITY PREDICTORS IN CRITICALLY ILL COPD PATIENTS

Volume 74, Apr 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.4.20
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Abstract: Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) significantly increases the hospitalization in intensive care unit and also to mortality among patients with COPD. Acute predictors of mortality and morbidity following AECOPD can manipulate the treatment modality. We investigated the predictive value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients that are hospitalized due to AECOPD in intensive care unit (ICU). Material and methods: This study was performed between June 2011 to 2015 in an in ICU of a tertiary hospital by including the patients that are hospitalized in ICU and diagnosed as AECOPD. Results: The mortality rate was 34.8% (n=46). Apache-II score was higher and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was lower in non-survivors. Lower FEV1% predicted is associated with mortality. Among co-morbidities, cardiac arrhythmia, renal failure and lung cancer were associated with increased mortality. Length of stay in the ICU stay time was longer in non-survivors. The mean values of NLR and PLR was greater in non-survivors but the differences were not statistically significant (p=0.655 and 0.261 respectively). The NLR was correlated with WBC and CRP (with WBC p<0.001 r=0.397 and with CRP p=0.028 r=0.190); but PLR has no correlation with WBC and CRP (with WBC p=0.164 r=0.122 and with CRP p=0.728 r=0.030). Discussion: NLR and PLR are the new biomarkers that are widely used prognostic markers in various diseases especially cardiovascular diseases but they are not good markers of mortality for patients that are hospitalized in intensive care unit due to AECOPD.

Author(s): Recai Ergun, Begum Ergan


PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVEL FOR SHORT TERM SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS NEEDING \\r\\nMECHANICAL VENTILATION DUE TO CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE EXACERBATIONS\\r\\n

Volume 74, Apr 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.4.22
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Abstract: Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum uric acid (UA) \\r\\nlevels and long term survival after hospitalization for a severe exacerbation in chronic \\r\\nobstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. \\r\\nMethods and Material: The study was designed as retrospective cohort study and performed \\r\\nintensive care unit (ICU). \\r\\nDatabase for COPD patients with an exacerbation with the diagnosis of acute respiratory \\r\\nfailure and required either noninvasive or invasive ventilation were reviewed and patients� \\r\\ndemographic and clinical characteristics and laboratory data were recorded. Patients were \\r\\ndivided into two groups according to their serum UA levels. \\r\\nStatistical analysis used: In the multivariable analysis, independent factors in predicting \\r\\nsurvival were investigated by Cox regression analysis with Backward selection using probable \\r\\nfactors determined in the previous analyses. \\r\\nResults: Among 103 COPD patients, the serum UA level was <6.9 mg/dL in 54 (52.4%) \\r\\npatients (low UA group) and ?6.9 mg/dL in 49 (47.6%) patients (high UA group). The groups \\r\\ndid not differ regarding 28-, 90-, 180-, and 365-day survival rates; the median duration of \\r\\nsurvival was 90 days in the low UA group and 51 days in the high UA group (p=0.584). The \\r\\nmultivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum UA level (?6.9 mg/dL) was \\r\\nassociated with increased mortality risk in COPD patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation \\r\\n(hazard ratio=1.97, 95% confidence interval=1.10-3.51, p=0.022). \\r\\nConclusions: Serum UA level may be a beneficial biomarker in predicting mortality risk in \\r\\nCOPD patients with acute respiratory failure and required either noninvasive or invasive \\r\\nventilation.

Author(s): Recai Ergun, Dilek Ergün


QUALITY OF WORK LIFE - LINKAGE WITH JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY OF EMPLOYEES IN YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY, KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA

Volume 74, May 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.5.20
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Abstract: The world is changing very fast and all organizations are striving to gain a competitive edge by attracting and retaining its human capital. At this backdrop the present study examines the Quality of Work Life (QWL) in Yanbu Industrial City, K.S.A. in terms of how employees’ job satisfaction is impacted by various factors of QWL – work morale environment, job characteristics, income, teamwork, supervision style, and participation in decision making. The result indicates that QWL is high among the employees and the majority of employees have adequate confidence regarding their skills, job characteristics, opportunity in decision making process and relationship with the management, however; some employees complained about their income. Furthermore there is a significant relationship between working environment factors and job satisfaction. The regression analysis also reveals that QWL is fairly explained about 54 percentage of the variance in job satisfaction; thus it is a good predictor for job satisfaction. The present study contributes to the understanding of QWL and job satisfaction amongst the employees of Yanbu Industrial City, K.S.A.

Author(s): Abdulmonem H. Alzalabani

SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING NETT FARM REVENUE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS UNDER EXTREME CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

Volume 74, May 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.5.19
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Abstract: The Eastern Cape is one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Agriculture remains an important sector in the province, and most smallholder farmers largely depend on it for both income and sustaining their livelihoods. Smallholder farming is usually constrained by numerous bio-physical and socio-economic challenges, resulting in low productivity and low income levels. This situation is worsened by the emerging global threat of extreme climatic events. This paper sought to determine the socio-economic factors that influence the nett farm revenue of smallholder farmers under extreme climatic conditions in the Eastern Cape province. Smallholder farmers were stratified into dry-land and irrigation farmers. Primary data was collected from 250 smallholder farmers (both crop and livestock) through structured questionnaires by means of convenience sampling from the Chris Hani and OR Tambo Districts. Data was analysed on Stata software. Descriptive statistics were employed to describe farmer characteristics and the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regressions were employed to determine the socio-economic factors influencing nett farm revenue of smallholder farmers. Results show that on average, the nett farm revenue of irrigation farmers was higher (ZAR11 868.06) than that of the dry-land farmers (ZAR7 904.85) per annum. Socio-economic factors such as gender, highest educational level, household size, farming experience and access to formal markets positively influenced nett farm revenue while distance to output markets negatively influenced nett farm revenue. It is recommended that smallholder farmers be supported and empowered, especially under extreme climatic conditions, through educational programmes and market development to enhance their production and boost their nett farm revenues.

Author(s): Melusi Sibanda, Lovemore Musemwa, Abyssinia Mushunje, Charles S. Mutengwa, Leocadia Zhou


PHILOSOPHY OF VALUES VS THEOLOGY OF VIRTUE

Volume 74, May 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.5.18
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Abstract: The concept of "value" in the socio-philosophical tradition has a long and sometimes ambiguous history of definition. Treating the "value" philosophers of different periods often apply the criterial approach, that is, differentiate the definition of the term depending on the chosen criterion. The choice of such a criterion, including the definition of the value characteristic of a thing (phenomenon), indicates the subjectivity of the approach. It is the subjectivity of the interpretation of the concept of "value" that gave rise to the multiplicity of philosophical approaches to its understanding. This article is devoted to the analysis of possible variants of the correlation of the concepts of virtue and value from the standpoint of both theoretical knowledge and empirical results of the author's monitoring research.

Author(s): Vera A. Gnevasheva

AN EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MATRIX EFFECT ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF HEPATITIS B IMMUNOGLOBULIN ON IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT LEVELS MEASURED WITH THE LC-MS/MS METHOD

Volume 74, May 2018
doi: 10.21506/j.ponte.2018.5.4
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Abstract: Some of the liver transplant patients need to use hepatitis B immunglobulin (HBIG) preparations due to hepatitis B reinfections. Blood level measurement of immunosuppressants used to prevent rejection is performed by immunoassay methods and LC-MS/MS reference method. It is known that immunoassay methods are influenced by immunoglobulins. Therefore, the LC-MS/MS method should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of organ rejection. Although LC-MS/MS is the reference method, some molecules in the serum may cause incorrect measurement of the analyte through matrix effect that is changing ionization efficiency. The aim of this article is to investigate the exposure of immunosuppressant blood level to the matrix effect with HBIG drug used in liver transplant patients Experimentally, it was observed that low and medium blood concentrations of tacrolimus, everolimus, sirolimus and cyclosporin were significantly increased in the interference study by adding HBIG (Hepatect CP 50 IU) to the control materials. Amount of increase is between 15,38% - 35,61%. Incorrect laboratory results may lead clinicians to adjust the wrong blood drug dose. It is vital to keep the immunosuppressive drug levels in the therapeutic index in organ transplant patients. Immunosuppressants should be measured from blood sample that is taken prior to HBIG administration, since incorrect measurements caused by the matrix effect would increase the risk of liver rejection.

Author(s): Ataman GONEL, ismail KOYUNCU